Use it or lose it clean water act 101 hank graddy sierra sentinels july 10, 2017. More than seventy changes were made in the existing law. The list appears in the code of federal regulations at 40 cfr 401. Amendments to title i amends the federal water pollution control act the clean water act to authorize appropriations for fy 1983 through 1990 for. The clean water act cwa passed in 1977 and acts as an amendment to the federal water pollution control act of 1972. At the time, twothirds of the countrys lakes, rivers and coastal waters had. The clean water act cwa expressly says that states are supposed to play the leading role in protecting water. Passed in 1972 and amended in 1977 and 1987, the clean water act was originally known as the federal water pollution control act. As amended in 1977, the law became commonly known as the clean water act cwa. This permit means the applicable individual npdes permit to which these standard conditions apply. Since peaking in 1977, federal funding for water infrastructure has been cut by 74 percent in real dollars. Clean water rule and the 1977 regulations the agencies want to repromulgate each defines the waters of the united states protected by the clean water act. Toxic and priority pollutants under the clean water act.
Originally enacted in 1948, it was totally revised by amendments in 1972 that gave the act its current shape. Amendment to the federal water pollution control act of 1972 research paper directions. Liebesman is an attorney with the harker law firm in washington, d. Three key reforms for federal water policy the heritage. The clean water act of 1977 has fulfilled that promiseand it also maintains the original promise of the clean water for the american people.
This act also created a major public work financing program for the municipal sewage treatment. An act to provide for water pollution control activities in the public health. Under section 309, epa can issue administrative orders and can seek civil, criminal penalties against the violators of the act. The clean water act cwa establishes the basic structure for regulating. Water prevention and control of pollution act, 1974. The industry has steadily moved from small, widespread, family farms to large, investor owned, industrialized operations. The clean water act references the toxic pollutant list at section 307a1. Midcourse corrections in the section 404 program james r. Since the iepa received authority to implement and enforce the federal clean water act cwa npdes permit program in 1977,2 its program has failed to keep stride with rapid changes in illinois livestock industry. The clean water act of 1977 and its amendments, primarily the water quality act of 1987, and the oil pollution act of 1990. Clean water act became the acts common name through amendments in. Moreover, section 305 b of the act requires epa to compile a biennial report to congress on the nations water quality. Point sources are distinct conveyances such as pipes or manmade ditches. The united states code is meant to be an organized, logical compilation of the laws passed.
The cwa made it unlawful to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit authorized under the cwa was obtained. Attorney generals of new york, california, maine, maryland. In the 1972 clean water act and the 1977 surface mining control and reclamation act, congress struck a balance between the need for coal on the one hand and the desire to mitigate surface coal minings environmental effects on the other. The epa initiated this action on may 6, 1977, against the city and the dwsd, alleging violations of the clean water act.
Watershed academy web introduction to the clean water act. Spill prevention control and countermeasures fact sheet. However, to provide an acquaintanceship with its purposes and provisions generally, the titles of subchapters are listed and some sections are presented in their entirety or in part. Indefinitely postponed in senate 08041977 measure indefinitely postponed in senate, h. Environmental protection agency epa, which sets water quality standards, handles enforcement, and helps state and local governments develop their own pollution. The clean water act act is also known as the federal water pollution control act, as amended by the clean water act of 1977, and appears in 33 u. Draft indiana once through noncontact cooling water.
Consequences of the clean water act and the demand for water. These questions need to be answered in the research report. Sometimes these names say something about the substance of the law as with the 2002 winter olympic commemorative coin act. The 1977 clean water act continues the national goal of eliminating the discharge of pollutants into our water. Evolution of the meaning of waters of the united states. The clean water act cwa establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the united states and regulating quality standards for surface waters. It is the policy of the congress to recognize, preserve, and protect the primary.
Clean water act cwa, also known as federal water pollution control act amendments of 1972, u. Introduced in house 01061987 water quality act of 1987 title i. Growing public awareness and concern for controlling water pollution led to sweeping amendments in 1972. The cwas goal is to restore and maintain the chemical. Draft indiana once through noncontact cooling water general permit ing250000 page 5 of 18 5 discharges to salmonid waters as defined in 327 iac 21.
Section of clean water act amending section of 1977, of new section of p. The principal law governing pollution of the nations surface waters is the federal water pollution control act, or clean water act. The amendments to the act took two years of hard work by congress to develop. The state of michigan was realigned as a party plaintiff because of the. Clean water act became the acts common name with amendments in 1977. The cwa outlawed the discharge of any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit was obtained. Established the basic structure for regulating pollutants discharges into. Draft indiana once through noncontact cooling water general permit ing250000 page 1 of 18. The dean water act of 1977 introduction on december 27, 1977, president carter signed into law the clean water act of 1977, p. The regulation of toxic pollutants under the clean water act. The action was originally assigned to the honorable john feikens. We use the most comprehensive set of files ever compiled on water pollution and its. One of several federal laws relating to the environment, the clean water act of 1977 is quite lengthy and to reproduce it here in its entirety would serve the needs of relatively few persons. Most enhance the ability of the administrator of the environmental protection agency to deal with complex water pollution problems.
Passed in 1972, the clean water act was a response to the nearly unchecked dumping of pollution into our waterways. This act amends in a number of significant respects the federal water pollution control act hereinafter referred to as fwpca, or the act, as amended in 1972. A summary of the law summary the principal law governing pollution of the nations surface waters is the federal water pollution control act, or clean water act. Clayton barnett cwa of 1977 this act was thought of in 1972 and officially amended in 1977. Environmental protection agency clean water act cre. The cwa was a response to increasing public concern for the environment and for the condition of the nations waters. Evolution of the meaning of waters of the united states in the clean water act congressional research service 1 or more than fortyfive years, all three branches of government have struggled with how to interpret the meaning of waters of the united states in the clean water act. This act was thought of in 1972 and officially amended in 1977. The clean water act cwa is the primary federal law in the united states governing water. History of the clean water act the federal water pollution control act of 1948 was the first major u. Water act required all municipal treatment plants to have at least secondary treatment by 1977.
The clean water act also continued requirements to set water quality. He was formerly a senior trial attorney in the environmental defense section of the justice departments land and natural resources. Clean air act of 1970 and the federal water pollution control act of 1972, commonly known as the clean water act. Clean water act became the acts common name through amendments in 1977. Cwa of 1977 this act was thought of in 1972 and officially amended in 1977. The nation tackles air and water pollution sage publications.
The meaning of the 1977 clean water act about epa us epa. An original bill to amend the federal water pollution control act amendments of 1972. The clean water act, with the new toxics provisions of 1977, provides controls over dispersal into the nations waters of those toxic substances which continue in use and the resource conservation and recovery act of 1976 provides similar controls over disposition of toxicsladen solid wastes, including municipal sewage sludge. It served as a major revision of the federal water pollution control act of 1948, which had proven. Laws acquire popular names as they make their way through congress. The cwas goal is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nations waters. Clean water act any addition of any pollutant from a point source. The 1972 law gave epa the authority to set effluent standards on an industry basis technologybased and continued the. The basis of the cwa was enacted in 1948 and was called the federal water pollution control act, but the act was significantly reorganized and expanded in 1972. It is a national amendment and the functions of the clean water act of 1977 are. The requirements for the development and implementation of spcc plans are found in 40 cfr. Pdf on feb 21, 2014, kenneth schiff and others published was the clean water act effective. In promulgating the clean water rule the agencies considered an extensive factual record and legal precedent, and applied.1349 1100 71 601 149 665 870 1476 2 1562 418 375 598 623 190 394 295 310 1305 445 526 716 986 1375 1294 222 831 1400 314 949 693 117 1103 1410 1383 1088 1381 798 438 356 735 102 342 221 192 1438