The ed form of a regular verb is its past participle. If this word can be replaced by the pronoun it, then the word is a gerund. What are the rules for using gerunds and infinitives. Students decide whether it is a gerund or an infinitive that go with the rule. T or f a gerund is the ing form of a verb used as a noun. The second of the gerund and infinitive exercises is a multiple choice and you need to choose the correct answer. The gerund always has the same function as a noun although it looks like a verb.
The explanation will be followed by two practice activities with these grammar forms. The good news is that our threepart tutorial gives you twenty gerund and infinitive tips to take you from beginner to pro. Gerunds and infinitives some important rules the form of the verb that ends in ing is called a gerund when used as a noun. The most obvious role is the gerund as subject, in which the sentence is about an action. A gerund accompanied by its objects, complements, andor modifiers is called a gerund phrase or simply a noun phrase. Such a form of the verb ending in ing and used as a noun is called a gerund forms of. Its often used with the verbs to say, to announce, to tell you and to inform you.
A gerund is the ing form of a verb that functions the same as a noun. We regret to inform you the interview is cancelled. An infinitive is the base form a a verb, with or without to. Consult the lists below to find out which form to use following which verbs. Singing is his hobby here singing is a verb ending in ing. A gerund is one of three classes of words called verbals words based on verbs and expressing an action or a state of being but serving another grammatical function.
In a nutshell, a word formed from a verb acting as a noun and ending in ing is a gerund. For this reason, here you have a deep explanation of all their uses. Gi003 gerund or infinitive fill in the correct form intermediate. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive without causing a change in meaning. Gerund as subject because gerunds act as nouns, they can take any role that a noun would usually take in a sentence. Inside our huge company, i liked working gerunds the form of the verb that ends in ing is called a gerund when used as a noun.
Gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun in a sentence gerund the present participle ing form of the verb, e. English learners have difficulty with gerunds and infinitives. The gerund expresses an action of the verb in the form of a verbal noun. Gerund and infinitive worksheets are in pdf format and consist of a worksheet and answer sheet to check your results. Take the rule that governs regular verb conjugation. Gerund and infinitive phrases university of texas at dallas. Afterwards, they discuss the difference in meaning of some verbs which can take both gerunds and infinitives. Gerunds and infinitives can function b to compose a sonata would take months. Gerunds and infinitives can function as the subject of a sentence or the object of a verb.
Defining a rule for the use of infinitive and gerund. Here in part 1, we introduce gerunds and infinitives and explain the basics of everyday usage. We usually use infinitives with to in the english language. Here the gerund acting acts as the object of the preposition in.
Becoming a millionaire is a dream of many young people today. Verbs that show emotion and the fulfillment of unfulfillment of an activity may affect the meaning depending on the choice of an infinitive or a gerund. Gerund phrase, functioning as object of preposition we found the keys by looking on the ground next to the car. An infinitive is the verb form that has to at the beginning. Gerunds common verbs followed by gerunds a gerund is a noun formed by taking a verb and adding the suffix ing. Here the gerund reading acts as the object of the verb. Followed by gerundsadmit dislike give up missavoid enjoy have trouble put. Page 1 of 15 verbals gerunds and participles gerunds a gerund is a verbal that ends in ing and functions as a noun. Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the sentence i expect to have the results of the operation soon. Waking up early is the gerund phrase that forms the subject of the main verb is. Making friends has become more difficult since i moved to a new city.
Gerund it is a verb form which ends in ing and works as a noun in the following cases. The gerund looks identical to the present participle, which is used after the auxiliary verb to be, but are not the same as they do not function as. Adjective and adverbs downloadable pdf worksheets for english language learners intermediate level b1 home b1 grammar gerund and infinitive gerund and infintive b1. For more information, read gerunds and infinitives part 2. Verbs followed by gerunds and infinitives infinitives and gerunds1 often occur after verbs. Choose the correct answer for each gap below, then click the check button to check your answers. Eating too much fast food is not good for your health. Gerund and gerundive dickinson college commentaries. If we carry on sleeping so badly, we may need help. Following are some lists of the most common combinations. Like nouns, gerunds and gerund phrases can function as subjects, objects, or complements in a sentence. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being.
Unfortunately, there are no rules governingwhich verb form is used after each verb. Complete the sentences with a gerund or an infinitive. Gerunds and infinitives i want toefl grammar lesson 1 i want toefl grammar lesson 2 part a. A gerund phrase is a group of words beginning with a gerund and including any modifiers to that gerund. A compilation of upper level rules of gerunds and infinitives. The same spelling rules that apply to the progressive tenses also apply to gerunds. Grammar gerunds and infinitives learning how to use gerunds and infinitives is one of the most challenging aspects of learning english. They cant make clauses and their form dont change when the number and person of the subject changes. Regret with the gerund refers to a previous action. Watch the video ok, later on you can try to remember all the patterns.
Irregular verbs form their past participles in various ways for example, bend, bent. Forget with the infinitive means something happens at or after a certain time. Gerund and infinitive exercises perfect english grammar. Some verbs and verb phrases are directly followed a gerund. The four types of gerunds and gerund phrases follow. Paul avoids using chemicals on the vegetables he grows. A lot of my students ask me about the use of infinitives verbs that come after the word to versus the use of gerunds verbs ending in ing.
These verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive. Gerund and infinitive phrases the university of texas at dallas. The result of this comparative and relational analysis is a simple rule by which language learners can understand and effectively use the two complements correctly. A gerund is a verb form that ends in ing and is used as a noun walking, traveling, voting. This presentation lists common verbs andwhat comes after. Gerunds and infinitives some important rules azar grammar. Gerunds and infinitives worksheet with answers 3 for esl students and teachers. In english, if you want to follow a verb with another action, you must use a gerund or infinitive. It started to snow it started snowing 2 love, like, prefer, hate the meaning changes slightly, depending on whether the gerund or the infinitive is used. Because their function is that of a noun, gerunds may be used as the subject of a sentence. Infinitives are possible, but they are very formal and not very common in. For instance, a student recently asked me what the difference was between the sentences i like to swim and i like swimming. Use it is adjective to infinitive to make the infinitive the subject of a sentence. Test to determine whether a word in a sentence is a gerund, look at the words ending in ing in the sentence.
Gerunds are used after prepositions, but not usually after to. Page 1 of 15 verbals gerunds and participles gerunds. The italicized texts in the above examples are the gerund phrases. Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives i have always read in grammar books that consider is a verb followed by a gerund, but yesterday somebody showed me a book that claims that consider can be followed either by a gerund or and infinitive, im confused now. Infinitive phrases normally referred to as infinitives are formed with the word to in front of a verb. Common verbs followed by the gerund perfect english. You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. Rules for using gerunds and infinitives to describe an action.
This blog post is available as a convenient and portable pdf that you can take anywhere. Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the. Gerund and infinitive worksheet in this printable worksheet, the rules for using gerunds and infinitives will be explained in detail. Both gerunds and infinitives can be subjects in sentences, and both gerunds and infinitives can serve as the object of a. Gerunds and infinitives part 1 easy and clear rules the gerund can be used as the subject of a sentence. There is indeed a difference between those two sentences and other similar pairs of sentences. A gerund, which functions as a noun, can consist of a single word or a phrase. When you need an action as a subject, use a gerund. Learning to use gerunds and infinitives can feel a bit overwhelming at first. Infinitive and gerund infinitive after an adjective example. Exercise 1 in pdf here choose the gerund or infinitive for a list of twenty verbs exercise 2 in pdf here choose the gerund or infinitive for a list of twenty verbs exercise 3 in pdf here choose the gerund or infinitive for a list of twenty verbs exercise 4 in pdf here choose a gerund or infinitive when it changes the meaning.
Gerunds and infinitives lets read the following passage, then underine the verbs that end in ing and those with to important decisions or be anyones boss. At the same time it is the subject of the verb is, and hence does function as a noun. Regret with the infinitive is used to give bad news in a formal, polite way. The gerund is the neuter of the gerundive, used substantively in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative. Some people prefer getting up early in the morning. A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech, usually a noun.923 941 1043 570 853 1161 69 375 1475 1389 378 646 6 657 933 208 1478 1208 778 473 711 1478 255 1488 1217 710 294 539 529 605 140 545 126